Almost everyone who has ever worked with wiring knows or has heard that electrical appliances are subject to mandatory grounding. At the same time, not everyone knows why this is done.
What is grounding for?
Grounding – a special construction of a metal rod stuck into the ground, wires and a terminal, which is assembled in order to prevent the accumulation of excess current in electrical appliances, sockets, etc.
The essence of grounding is simple: at the moment when excess current occurs or voltage drops occur, the current flows through the wire into the pin and enters the ground, without harming the device and the house in any way.
Of course, grounding is done not only to protect electrical appliances from combustion, but also to completely protect a person from damage by electricity. Quite often, you may encounter a situation where you are shocked at the moment of touching any electrical device. Most often this happens in houses and apartments that do not have grounding.
The occurrence of static electricity occurs because some kind of wire or connection fails, loses its coating due to long operation or mechanical damage.
In new houses, not only zero and phase are mounted, but also a third PE wire, which diverts static current to the ground. Most owners believe that this is quite enough and do not make grounding. This is an erroneous opinion. The fact is that the cable is not a full-fledged ground electrode, so even in new homes you must create a ground yourself or by calling an electrician, which will protect you from problems in the future use of electrical appliances.
Also a very important point is the purchase of new electrical appliances. For example, a washing machine or a microwave oven. Even in the case when you have euro sockets throughout the house, it is worth grounding this device. Such devices operate at a very high voltage, therefore they are of particular danger. In addition, they are used constantly, which means that failure or damage is very likely. Therefore, be sure to read the article: “How to ground a washing machine.”
Grounding scheme of a private house
Before you start mounting the grounding, according to the rules for drawing up and designing electrical circuits and devices, it is necessary to draw up the correct diagram and preferably show it to an electrician. At the moment when you collect your grounding and install it, follow the project strictly, and then save this paper so that there are no problems during future repairs.
The fact is that in no case should the grounding be broken using automatic machines, switching devices or other similar devices. They can not only disrupt the operation of the grounding device, but also lead to serious consequences if it is at the time of work that electricity from some device passes into the ground. Therefore, all work in such places is carried out exclusively manually after a detailed study of the grounding scheme.
After you have completed the grounding, it is imperative to measure the spreading resistance of the circuit. These measurements are performed by electrical laboratories or organizations that supply you with electricity. If all measurements are normal, then you managed to establish the correct grounding.
How to make grounding in a private house?
The main point in grounding a private house is the installation of installations. Initially, you need to choose a place where the metal rods will be driven in. It should be a place that has nothing to do with metal elements. The ground into which the pin will be driven should be as dry as possible, located far from any water. The fact is that the presence of dampness can lead to the appearance of various types of corrosion, which will worsen the electrical conductivity of the pin, through which electricity will go to the ground.
The design should look as shown in the photo above:
- We dig out the place in which we will place the pin, up to the moment when the rock of the earth turns out to be very hard;
- We drill a hole with a drill, the width and depth we need;
- We drive in our pin so that after filling the earth into the hole, it remains slightly above the main plane of the earth.
In addition, you should not flood the place where you install the ground electrode with cement mortar or something similar. There should always be an approach to it, since every few years you need to check the wires and tighten the contacts. It is better to leave the insulation on the wire, which is grounding, up to the very bolt to which you will attach it.
In fact, the ground is a pin, with a small washer attached to the top, which can be untwisted. It is in this washer that a wire is inserted that removes static electricity from various devices. There are two ways to ground, each with its own advantages.
Grounding each device separately
In this case, from different sides of the house, you bring out the grounding and immediately mount it near the wall. This method is convenient high reliability and greater simplicity. However, you will not be able to give aesthetics by disguising such grounding – it will be clearly visible against the background of the house.
There are two types of such work:
- The placement of the grounding pin to a depth of 3-5 m in the sands of the aquifer type. This is the standard method used at home.
- The pin is lowered to a depth of 40 meters in loam so that a large amount of static current does not accumulate in the upper layers of the earth. For large-scale electrical installations, in which there may be breakdowns and very high voltage, a different ground is used.
This grounding method is suitable for connecting a dishwasher or when installing a water heater.
Grounding of all electrical systems in one network
In the event that you want to create one network for all electrical systems, you can place it in a place convenient for you, bringing all the wires to the desired point. I would like to note that such a network is quite reliable, but according to statistics it can fail more often than a single grounding.
For such grounding, several pins are made, which are lowered into the ground to a depth of 0.5 m, having a height of 2-3 m. In addition, the distance between them should be about 1.2 m. and in a single ground.
Video grounding in a private house
In this video you can see how grounding is mounted and created in a private house with tips and explanations:
Having made grounding in your house with your own hands, you will not only save money on electrician services. You will better understand the electrician you will use in the future and will be able to easily fix minor breakdowns, which is not at all difficult, given the huge number of tips on the Internet. In addition, you will protect your entire family, who will risk their lives by approaching ungrounded appliances.